DIY Pop Filter

Suggested materials:

  • One black nylon or pantyhose
  • One four or six inch embroidery hoop to hold the stretched nylon
  • One to two feet of 10/2 or similar electrical cabling (something flexible, but stiff enough to hold its shape)
  • Zipties, hose clamps, nuts, bolts, or screws for fastening/securing

There are several variations on the design, so alternate materials may be used to obtain a similar result.

Tools required:

  • Screwdriver
  • Scissors

There are many resources available online. Suggested helpful websites:


Mixing is the process of taking the individual tracks of a multitrack recording and blending them to a mono, stereo, or surround output.


The process of mixing is done for practical, aesthetic, or creative reasons. The goal is to produce a mix that is appealing to listeners.

During mixing, the following items are manipulated by the mixing engineer:

  • The individual tracks’ level or volume against other tracks. This creates an overall balance of the music.
  • The frequency content of both the individual tracks as well as the overall mix.
  • The dynamics of the individual tracks.
  • The panoramic position of the individual tracks.
  • The perceived depth of the individual tracks.
  • Any other effects for creative purposes.


Izhaki, Roey. Mixing Audio.

Senior, Mike. Mixing Secrets for the Small Studio.

Stavrou, Michael Paul. Mixing with your Mind.

What to Listen for When Evaluating Your Mix, part 1


Balance – The volume relationship between tracks

  • All instruments are heard

Frequency Content

  • All frequencies ranges are appropriately utilized

Panorama – The positioning of an instrument in the soundfield

  • Left v. Right
  • Nothing too extreme
  • Not too narrow

Dimension – Ambience

  • Appropriate for context

Dynamics – Controlling the dynamic envelope of an instrument

  • Amount
  • Timing (Attack and Release)